DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project
Footnotes for Dr. John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D.
Health Physicist William J. Bair, Ph.D.
Dr. John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D.
The college later merged with Western Reserve College, forming what is now Case Western Reserve University.
Jobs performed in exchange for board (meals)
The study of the formation and development of embryos; a human organism is considered an embryo approximately from the time the fertilized egg attaches to the uterine wall until about the eighth week of pregnancy
The study of the chemical components of cellular and subcellular tissue
A form of financial aid at a graduate school in which a student assists a professor, usually in academic or laboratory work
The role of chemistry in the science concerned with the relations between heat and mechanical energy and the conversion of one into the other
The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); established in 1947
The time required for half the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay
U.S. physicist, 1901-58; a pioneer in nuclear physics who built the first cyclotron in 1930; established the University of California Radiation Laboratory in 1936 and served as its director until his death
U.S. nuclear physicist (1904-67) who played a principal role in the development of the atomic bomb
Positively charged particles, each consisting of two protons and two neutrons, emitted in radioactive decay or nuclear fission; an alpha particle is the nucleus of a helium atom.
The supersecret project by the U.S. Government, Manhattan Engineer District, to develop the atomic bomb
A unit of radiation dosage equal to the amount of ionizing radiation required to produce one electrostatic unit of charge per cubic centimeter of air
E.I. du Pont, de Nemours and Company contructed and operated the Hanford site in Washington state from 1943 to 1946 for the Manhattan Project.
For the transcript of the interview with Tobias, see DOE/EH-0480, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D. (July 1995).
Any of the class of proteins that combine a lipid with a simple protein
Professional Staff, Senior Policy and Research Analyst, presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Helium, when inhaled, raises the pitch of one's voice, a fact now well-known and not uncommonly practiced for amusement wherever helium-filled toy balloons are found. 1995 findings, however, suggest that this practice can destroy brain cells.
Diseases characterized by overproduction of red blood cells
Produced in the bone marrow
A polysaccharide present in animal tissues, especially the liver, that has anticoagulant properties and is used in medicine to prevent or dissolve blood clots
Cells that are part of the endothelium, a single layer of smooth tissue that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serous cavities
A group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls
Radioactive tags on biomolecules used to study a biological, chemical, or physical system to study the system
Medical specialists who study the nature, function, and diseases of the blood and of blood-forming organs
The act of letting blood by opening a vein; phlebotomy
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Status thymicolymphaticus indicates a supposed enlargement of the thymus and lymph nodes in infants and children. Formerly, this was believed to be associated with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Additionally, it was erroneously believed that it might cause death during anesthesia from pressure on the trachea by the thymus.
University of Southern California
In the uterus; before being born
Widespread yellow nodules or plaques composed of lipid-laden histiocytes, especially on the elbows and knees
University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, where Hempelmann was a professor
Isotopes formed by radioactive decay of another isotope
Chairperson, Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California
A radioactive isotope of hydrogen having an atomic weight of three
Edward Teller (1908-), Hungarian-born refugee physicist and the "Father of the Hydrogen Bomb."
U.S. chemist (1901-) and Nobel Laureate, best known for his research in the role of Vitamin C in preventing the common cold
A degenerative inflammatory disease characterized by impaired mobility of the spinal column, in some cases leading to fusion of joints
A project in which the AEC planned to use hydrogen bombs to dig a new Panama Canal
Dr. Gofman is referring not to the treaty, but to a Congressional debate over an Army proposal to deploy an antiballistic missile (ABM) system. Under the system then proposed, attacking ballistic missiles would be destroyed in the atmosphere over the Continental United States by nuclear-armed interceptor missiles. The 1969 Sternglass article was inspired by ABM opponents, who argued that thousands of Americans would die from the fallout produced by even a successful defense with nuclear-armed ABMs. Later ABM system proposals dropped the concept of nuclear-armed interceptor missiles. In 1969, U.S. and Soviet officials had just started to negotiate an ABM Treaty; it would not be ready to submit to the Senate until 1972.
Defined by Dr. Gofman as the mucous expectorant from a tuberculosis patient
Examined by means of a fluoroscope, a tube or box fitted with a screen coated with a fluorescent substance, used for viewing deep body structures by means of x-ray or other radiation
Energy Research and Development Administration, predecessor agency to the Department of Energy
For the transcript of the interview with Morgan, see DOE/EH-0475, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Health Physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D. (June 1995).
National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)
Radiation and Human Health, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco (1981)
Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan
Argonne National Laboratory outside Chicago
Environmental Defense Fund
The North American Free Trade Agreement, signed in 1994 by the United States, Canada, and Mexico
For a transcript of the interview with Dr. Eisenbud, see DOE/EH-0456, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Merril Eisenbud. (May 1995).
The AEC Division of Biology and Medicine, in response to the urgent need for radiation biomedical information, initiated Project Sunshine. The Project began an evaluation of the hazards associated with nuclear war and grew into a worldwide investigation of radioactive fallout levels in the environment and in human beings.