Fatigue dogged U.S. pilots:
Crews urged to use amphetamines days before Canadian troops killed
by Glen McGregor, Vancouver Sun, 3 June 2002
OTTAWA -- Pilots from the U.S. fighter squadron that mistakenly bombed Canadian troops in Afghanistan had told their commanders shortly before the fatal accident that they were exhausted and needed more rest between missions.
The informal meeting between pilots of the 183rd Fighter Wing and their commanding officers was convened after the unit misidentified a bombing target during a previous mission over Iraq. The 183rd, an Air National Guard unit currently stationed in Kuwait, was flying patrol missions in the no-fly zone in Southern Iraq as well as sorties over Afghanistan.
In the meeting, held in the week before Canadian soldiers were shelled by American bombs in Afghanistan, at least one F-16 pilot complained that requirements for crew rest were not being observed and that many of the pilots were overtired. The pilot was told, however, that further questions about crew rest would not be looked on favourably by the wing command.
Instead, pilots were advised to speak to a flight surgeon about so-called "go/no pills" -- amphetamines used to help stay awake on long missions, and sedatives to help sleep.
Then, on April 17, a fighter from the 183rd flying a patrol mission accidentally bombed Canadian troops conducting a live-fire exercise south of Kandahar. Four soldiers from the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry were killed and eight injured.
Pilots are supposed to get 12 hours of rest between missions, but that can be changed when the unit is in a state of alert. The 183rd has been flying missions in the no-fly zone since March.
Although U.S. air force rules allow flight surgeons to prescribe dextro-amphetamine (dexe-drine), the drug is supposed to be used for long transoceanic transport flights, not combat missions.
"If they can't work around the scheduling, and people have to work extended hours, then dextro-amphetamine is approved," said Betty-Anne Mauger, a public affairs officer with the U.S. air force surgeon general.
The Canadian and U.S. military have convened their own boards of inquiry to find out why the F-16 dropped a laser guided-bomb on the Canadians. Canada's board, led by retired General Maurice Baril, said in a preliminary report last month that Canadian troops did nothing to provoke the incident.
It is still unclear whether Baril's board will be able to interview the F-16 pilot, whose identity has not been publicly disclosed.
The use of amphetamines was common among American fighter pilots in the Gulf War, according to journalist Rick Atkinson, author of Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War.
"There was concern in some squadrons that the pilots were becoming psychologically, if not physically, addicted to the pills," he told PBS's Frontline last year.
Atkinson estimates two-thirds of all pilots in Desert Storm used dexedrine at least once. "Some commanders became concerned enough to ban the flight surgeons from issuing further `go' pills. It became remarkably divisive within some squadrons."
© 2002 Vancouver Sun
Reprinted for Fair Use Only.